YOUNG'S MODULUS OF STEEL

Young's modulus of steel at room temperature is typically between 190 GPa (27500 ksi) and 215 GPa (31200 ksi). Young's modulus of carbon steels (mild, medium and high), alloy steels, stainless steels and tool steels are given in the following table in GPA and ksi.

Young's modulus (or Modulus of elasticity) is the measure of rigidity or stiffness of a material; the ratio of stress to the corresponding strain below the proportional limit. The modulus of elasticity is the slope of the stress-strain curve in the range of linear proportionality of stress to strain In the stress-strain curve.

Modulus of Elasticity of Steel
Material Modulus of Elasticity
GPa ksi
Modulus of Elasticity of Carbon Steels
ASTM A228
(Music Wire)
210 30458
ASTM A36 200 29008
AISI 1010 205 29700
AISI 1018 205 29700
AISI 1020 205 29700
AISI 1025 190-210 27557-30458
AISI 1040 190-210 27557-30458
AISI 1045 205 29700
Modulus of Elasticity of Alloy Steels
AISI 4037 190-210 27557-30458
AISI 4130 190-210 27557-30458
AISI 4140 190-210 27557-30458
AISI 4150 190-210 27557-30458
AISI 4340 190-210 27557-30458

Ref-1 Elastic modulus of carbon and low-alloy cast steels at room temperature are only slightly affected by changes in composition and structure. The modulus of elasticity, E, is about 200 GPa (29 × 106 psi). Increasing temperature has a effect on the modulus of elasticity.

A typical value of the modulus of elasticity:

- at 200 °C (400 °F) is about 193 GPa (28 × 106 psi);

- at 360 °C (680 °F), 179 GPa (26 × 106 psi);

- at 445 °C (830 °F), 165 GPa (24 × 106 psi);

- and at 490 °C (910 °F), 152 GPa (22 × 106 psi).

- Above 480 °C (900 °F), the value of the modulus of elasticity decreases rapidly.

Modulus of Elasticity of Steel
Material Modulus of Elasticity
GPa ksi
Modulus of Elasticity of Stainle Steels
Grade 316 193 27992
Grade 405 200 29008
Grade 440C 200 29008
PH 15-7 Mo 200 29008
17-4 PH 196 28500
17-7 PH 204 29600
Modulus of Elasticity of Tool Steels
D2 tool steel 210 30458
T1 tool steel 190-210 27557-30458
M2 tool steel 207 30000
W1 tool steel 205 29700
O1 tool steel 214 31000
O6 tool steel 207 30000
A2 tool steel 207 30000
A6 tool steel 207 30000
H13 tool steel 215 31200
H22 tool steel 190-210 27557-30458
P20 tool steel 207 30000
S7 tool steel 207 30000

Ref-1 For all practical purposes, modulus of elasticity of all tool steels in all conditions is about 210 GPa (30 × 106 psi) at room temperature. Elastic modulus decreases uniformly to about 185 GPa (27 × 106 psi) at 260 °C (500 °F) and about 150 GPa (22 × 106 psi) at 540 °C (1000 °F).


Reference:

  • Ref-1 Metals Handbook. Properties and Selection: Irons, Steels, and High- Performance Alloys. ASM International, 1990.