Spring steels are classified as plain carbon steels, alloy steels and
corrosion-resisting steels. Good formability, free of
defects, low cost and availability are expected from spring steels for manufacturing of springs.
High mechanical strength, good fatigue resistance, low elastic modulus, good corrosion resistance, good resistance to creep and relaxation are desirable properties after spring manufacturing.
Descriptions of the most commonly used spring steels are given below.
Music Wire: It's also known as piano wire. It is a tempered high-carbon steel (ASTM A228)
and widely used of all spring materials for small springs. It has the highest tensile strength and can withstand higher
stresses under repeated loading than any other spring material. Maximum service temperature is 120 °C (250°F).
Hard Drawn Wire: Cold drawn spring steels (ASTM A227) are the most inexpensive
spring steels and should be used only
where life, accuracy, and deflection
are not too important.
Oil-Tempered Wire: A spring steel material (ASTM A229) which is
used for many types of coil springs
where the cost of music wire is
prohibitive and in sizes larger than
available in music wire. Not for shock
or impact loading.
Chrome Vanadium: An alloy spring
steel material (ASTM A231) for conditions involving higher
stresses than can be used with the
high-carbon steels and for use where
fatigue resistance and long endurance
are needed. Used for shock loads and moderately elevated temperature. Maximum service temperature is 220 °C (425°F).
Chrome Silicon: An alloy spring steel (ASTM A401) for
highly stressed springs that require
long life and are subjected to shock